Glossary of Terms
Body composition (Whole Body)
The division of soft tissue (as opposed to bone tissue) into fat and lean tissue.
Bone mineral content (BMC)
A measurement of bone mineral found in a specific area. BMC is measured in grams (g).
Bone mineral density (BMD)
BMD is measured in grams per centimeter squared (g/cm2). BMD is derived using BMC divided by area, where BMC is measured in grams (g) and area is measured in centimeters squared (cm2).
Dense, hard bone with microscopic spaces. It is typically found in the long bones (i.e. femur, tibia) and in the outer region of the vertebrae.
Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
A quantitative imaging technique that uses an radiation source to measure bone mineral density.
A scan that measures three regions of interest: the femoral neck, Ward’s triangle, and the greater trochanter. This can be confusing because the “femoral neck” is sometimes thought to be in the neck, rather than the hip.
Anabolic compounds created to enhance bone density and muscle strength. In the research studies conducted to date the results were no better than the subjects taking calcium and vitamin D consistently.
Normal Bone Density
Bone density that falls is the “T” score range of +2 to -1.
Dying or dead bone. Infrequently found in individuals who have been on bisphophonates for several years due to the reducing of the activity of the osteoclasts.
A cell from which bone develops, a bone forming cell
A large multinuclear cell associated with absorption and removal of bone: responsible for bone resorption
A condition where bone mineral density is lower than normal however not yet as low as osteoporosis and falls in the “T score range of -1.1 to -2.4
Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterised by low bone mass and micro architectural deterioration of bone tissues, with a consequent increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture.
A scan that includes the vertebrae of the lumbar spine in its region of interest. We use lumbar 1-4.
Strontium ( Ranelate)
A chemical element being studied for use in USA as an osteoporosis treatment. It is approved in other countries and has many different forms. It is unique in that it increases osteoblasts and decreases osteoclasts. It does not have FDA approval at this time.
The difference between the patient’s BMD and the mean young adult value of the reference population, divided by the reference standard deviation (SD). A T-score of –2 means the patient is 2 SDs below the reference population.
Porous bone composed of an intricate, latticed network of fibrous, calcified mineral. It is typically found at points of compression, such as lumbar vertebrae, femoral head, etc.
The difference between the patient’s BMD and the mean age-matched value of the reference population, divided by the reference standard deviation (SD). A Z-score of –2 means the patient is 2 SDs below the reference population (age and gender matched).